Unitarian Universalism - Wikipedia
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While on this trip, he was asked to run for President again. He won, taking office on October 12, The age of the gaucho had ended, and the age of the merchant and cattleman had begun.
Sarmiento's tour of the United States had given him many new ideas about politics, democracy, and the structure of society, especially when he was the Argentine ambassador to the country from to He found New Englandspecifically the Boston - Cambridge area to be the source of much of his influence, writing in an Argentine newspaper that New England was "the cradle of the modern republic, the school for all of America. Europe contemplates in New England the power which in the future will supplant her.
As Rock reports, "between and educational subsidies from the central government to the provinces quadrupled.
Inhe conducted Argentina's first national census. In the war against Paraguay, Sarmiento's adopted son was killed. On August 22,Sarmiento was the target of an unsuccessful assassination attempt, when two Italian anarchist brothers shot at his coach. That same year, he became the Senator for San Juan, a post that he held untilwhen he became Interior Minister. Pedro IIthe Emperor of Brazil and a great admirer of Sarmiento, sent to his funeral procession a green and gold crown of flowers with a message written in Spanish remembering the highlights of his life: The statue of Sarmiento when being unveiled in Sarmiento was well known for his modernization of the country, and for his improvements to the educational system.
He firmly believed in democracy and European liberalism, but was most often seen as a romantic. He did, however, see pitfalls to liberty, pointing for example to the aftermath of the French Revolutionwhich he compared to Argentina's own May Revolution.
Therefore, his use of the term "liberty" was more in reference to a laissez-faire approach to the economy, and religious liberty. He put great importance on law and citizen participation. These ideas he most equated to Rome and to the United States, a society which he viewed as exhibiting similar qualities. In order to civilize the Argentine society and make it equal to that of Rome or the United States, Sarmiento believed in eliminating the caudillos, or the larger landholdings and establishing multiple agricultural colonies run by European immigrants.
He opened a number of schools including the first school in Latin America for teachers in Santiago in La Escuela Normal Preceptores de Chile. Written during his long exile in Chile. Originally published in in Chile in installments in El Progreso newspaper, Facundo is Sarmiento's most famous work.
It was first published in book form inand the first English translation, by Mary Mann, appeared in Facundo promotes further civilization and European influence on Argentine culture through the use of anecdotes and references to Juan Facundo QuirogaArgentine caudillo general. As well as being a call to progress, Sarmiento discusses the nature of Argentine peoples as well as including his thoughts and objections to Juan Manuel de Rosas, governor of Buenos Aires from to and again fromdue to the turmoil generated by Facundo's death, to As literary critic Sylvia Molloy observes, Sarmiento claimed that this book helped explain Argentine struggles to European readers, and was cited in European publications.
Facundo maintains its relevance in modern-day as well, bringing attention to the contrast of lifestyles in Latin America, the conflict and struggle for progress while maintaining tradition, as well as the moral and ethical treatment of the public by government officials and regimes.
In this second autobiography, Sarmiento displays a stronger effort to include familial links and ties to his past, in contrast to Mi defensa, choosing to relate himself to San Juan and his Argentine heritage.
Domingo Faustino Sarmiento
Sarmiento discusses growing up in rural Argentina with basic ideologies and simple livings. Recuerdos discusses his Similar to Facundo, Sarmiento uses previous dossiers filed against himself by enemies to assist in writing Recuerdos and therefore fabricating an autobiography based on these files and from his own memory.Teologia - Doctrina Unitaria y Doctrina Trinitaria
Sarmiento's persuasion in this book is substantial. The accounts, whether all true or false against him, are a source of information to write Recuerdos as he is then able to object and rectify into what he creates as a 'true account' of autobiography. The following is a selection of his other works: This was Sarmiento's first autobiography in a pamphlet form, which omits any substantial information or recognition of his illegitimate daughter Ana.
This would have discredited Sarmiento as a respected father of Argentina, as Sarmiento portrays himself as a sole individual, disregarding or denouncing important ties to other people and groups in his life. A description and observations while travelling as a representative of the Chilean government to learn more about educational systems around the world. A description of a future utopian city in the River Plate States. This is Sarmiento's official account of his ideologies promoting civilization and the "Europeanization" and "Americanization" of Argentina.
This account includes dossiers, articles, speeches and information regarding the pending constitution. This report was the first official statistic report on education in Latin America includes information on gender and location distribution of pupils, salaries and wages, and comparative achievement.
This work, along with the previous two, were intended to persuade Latin America and Argentines of the benefits of the educational, economic and political systems of the United States, which Sarmiento supported.
While situations in the book remain particular to the time period and location, race issues and conflicts of races are still prevalent and enable the book to be relevant in the present day. A memoir of Dominguito, Sarmiento's adopted son who was the only child Sarmiento had always accepted.
Many of the notes used to compile Vida de Dominguito had been written 20 years prior during one of Sarmiento's stays in Washington. This had a large impact on Argentine politics, especially as much of the civil tension in the country was divided between the rural provinces and the cities.
In addition to increased urban population, these European immigrants had a cultural effect upon Argentina, providing what Sarmiento believed to be more civilized culture similar to North America's. Sarmiento focused on illiteracy of the youth, and suggested simplifying reading and spelling for the public education system, a method which was never implemented.
The impact of Domingo Faustino Sarmiento is most obviously seen in the establishment of September 11 as Panamerican Teacher's Day which was done in his honor at the Interamerican Conference on Education, held in Panama.
Today, he is still considered to be Latin America's teacher. The official statement of Unitarian Universalist principles describes the "sources" upon which current practice is based: Spiritual teachings of earth-centered traditions which celebrate the sacred circle of life and instruct us to live in harmony with the rhythms of nature. Unitarian Universalist principles and purposes have been modified over time to manifest a broader acceptance of beliefs and traditions among the membership.
The seventh Principle adopted in"Respect for the interdependent web of all existence of which we are a part", and a sixth Source adopted in"Spiritual teachings of earth-centered traditions which celebrate the sacred circle of life and instruct us to live in harmony with the rhythms of nature" were added to explicitly include members with neopaganNative Americanand pantheist spiritualities. While Unitarianism and Universalism both have roots in the Protestant Christian tradition, where the Bible is the sacred text, we now look to additional sources for religious and moral inspiration….
When we read scripture in worship, whether it is the Biblethe Dhammapadaor the Tao Te-Chingwe interpret it as a product of its time and its place,…not to be interpreted narrowly or oppressively…[S]cripture is never the only word, or the final word.
From the beginning we have trusted in the human capacity to use reason and draw conclusions about religion…[E]ach of us ultimately chooses what is sacred to us. Worship and practice[ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. June Learn how and when to remove this template message Diversity of practices[ edit ] The Unitarian belief that reason, and not creed, defines the search for truth, and the Universalist belief that God embraces all people equally has led to the current Unitarian Universalist belief that truth and spiritual meaning can be found in all faiths. This is reflected in the wide array of spiritual practices found among Unitarian Universalists today.
Children's and youth's religious education classes teach about the divinity of the world and the sanctity of world religions. One of its more popular curricula, Neighboring Faiths formerly Church Across the Streettakes middle and high school participants to visit the places of worship of many faith traditions including a Hindu temple, a Reform or Orthodox synagogue, and a Catholic church.
There is great variety among Unitarian Universalist congregations, with some favoring particular religious beliefs or forms of worship over others, with many more home to an eclectic mix of beliefs. Regardless of their orientation, most congregations are fairly open to differing beliefs, though not always with various faith traditions represented to the same degree. Diversity of congregations[ edit ] There is a wide variety in how congregations conceive of themselves, calling themselves "churches", "societies", "fellowships", "congregations", or eschew the use of any particular descriptor e.
Whether a congregation is a 'fellowship' or a 'church' sometimes hinges on whether it is led by one or more minister s: Many use the name "Unitarian Universalist", and a few "Universalist Unitarian"having gradually adopted this formulation since consolidation in Others use names that reflect their historic roots by keeping the historical designation "Unitarian" or "Universalist" e.
A few congregations use neither e. For some congregations, the name can be a clue to their theological orientation. For others, avoidance of the word "church" indicates a desire to distance itself from traditional Christian theology. Sometimes the use of another term may simply indicate a congregation's lay-led or relatively new status. However, some Unitarian Universalist congregations have grown to appreciate alternative terms such as fellowship and retained them even though they have grown much larger or lost features sometimes associated with their use such as, in the case of fellowships, a traditionally lay-led worship model.
Elevator speeches[ edit ] InUU World magazine asked for contributions of " elevator speeches " explaining Unitarian Universalism. Here are examples of the speeches submitted: