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Carlos Slim, for example, does not appear in the Wall Street Journal until his Telmex purchase ofand in the New York Times he goes unmentioned until Even today, reporting is compromised by the threat of advertiser boycotts. Mexico City has more than 25 daily newspapers, compared with just eight in New York City, despite the fact that New York boasts a higher aggregate readership and a far larger economy.
This means that the local advertising pie is not only relatively small but also highly fragmented, which in turn gives major advertisers -like Carlos Slim Telmex, Telcel, Sanborns, Sears, etc.
These caveats, taken together, suggest that business biographers in Mexico must rely a good deal less on print media than their U. It may strike the researcher as odd to suggest interviews as the next step. They are the daily practice of journalists but to historians they may be an afterthought, if not an alien pursuit. Besides, I have yet to mention public archives. One should give interviews particular emphasis because press accounts are so often unreliable and because in many archives the names of businessmen rarely appear.
The starting point for investigating any company to which one does not have access might ordinarily be a Public Property Registry or a Notary Archive. These are found in Mexico City and each of the state capitals. According to Mexican commercial law, a limited-liability company had to consist of at least three shareholding partners; afterthe law was modified to require five.
But what if your subject were an expatriate American for example, Jenkinswho wished to conceal his assets from IRS agents at the U. Very likely, he would have designated a prestanombres to stand before the notary public in his place. Alternatively, what if your subject owned a large company but wished to lower his tax exposure for example, Jenkins again, with his giant chains of cinemas, cotsa and Cadena de Oro?
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Very likely he would have constituted it as a host of small companies, their names perhaps obscure or unremarkably generic, each of them individually notarised and registered. Suppose your subject is dead, or opposed to your project. You may yet have luck with members of his family. The very wealthy are especially subject to frictions over favouritism and inheritance, so there is likely to be at least one family member who will talk.
Perhaps best of all, there are former employees. Some will have parted on good terms and be full of praise, others will have been fired and sprinkle their anecdotes with venom. By interviewing people from each category, the researcher is better able to adjust for bias. To some historians, much more comfortable with the tangibility of documents, there is something inherently unreliable about interviews.
Interviewees have agendas, faulty memories, a tendency to give themselves starring roles when in fact they were bit players; as they say in Mexico, tienden a poner crema a sus tacos. But here we risk a false dichotomy: Finally, interviews are not solely a matter of oral exchange.
They can lead to the perusal of photographs, the consultation of private letters, the lending of unpublished memoirs. Dig in the Archives: As noted already, the best places to start are i the Public Property Registry or II the Notary Archive in the city where your subject was or is resident. Property registry volumes are divided into separate series for company constitutions, company activities including capital infusions, loan activities, and bankruptciesproperty acquisitions, and so on, making them relatively easy to search.
The exception here is the Mexico City Property Registry, which does not easily let researchers consult its archive; rather, its staff conduct searches on your behalf, charging about pesos per name sought. Notary archives are divided into separate series for each notary public, so you have to know in advance which notary or notaries your subject used.
Other useful archives include: For much of the twentieth century, businessmen telegrammed or wrote to the president, as evidenced in the Ramo Presidencial series. Most correspondence is bland, involving congratulations on taking office and invitations to inaugurate factories, but some involves pleas to arbitrate a drawn-out dispute or to refrain from an expropriation.
This is a good place to start when researching any foreign or immigrant businessman. The index should produce a general file for each subject, along with separate files pertaining to major legal disputes and expropriations. The series for the twentieth century that the AGEP retains are of limited use to the business historian.
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However, state congresses retain their own archives such as the Archivo del Congreso del Estado de Pueblawhich include records of debates and correspondence with congressional leaders, and these volumes can yield useful data regarding local businessmen, especially those who gained concessions to collect the pulque tax, to operate in a government-owned building, etc.
The collection is especially good for researching industry in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
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VII Chamber of commerce archives: Since historians have infrequently consulted them, gaining access may require persistence. But the volumes can provide a rich source for tracing the evolution of a local industry and the prominence and politicking of its leading members. While the main archives of this federal statistics-gathering dependency are held in Mexico City and Aguascalientes, the vast majority of its collection has been digitized.
Holdings potentially useful to the business historian include the industrial census Censo Industrial de los Estados Unidos Mexicanosheld every five years sinceand the labour survey Encuesta Nacional de Empleoupdated regularly since Embassy and other departments. Much of it is available on microfilm and complemented by subject guides.
Meeting it requires strategizing with regards to the subject, family, friends, and executives. Direct interview requests may well be met with silence. Since personal introductions are key, contacts must be cultivated.
My approach to the Jenkins family began with a great-grandson, a businessman about whom I had written when I was a journalist in the s. He introduced me to his father, who was about to assume the presidency of the Jenkins Foundation.
Further introductions followed, so I was able to speak to seventeen members of the family in all. Success in such a process is certainly helped by a track record as a writer, though that is not always necessary. I admit that being a foreigner -and more so, a European- may have opened some doors that would have remained closed to a Mexican.
That said, it was my co-author Claudia who landed our hardest-to-reach interviewees for El Tigre: Again, eminences such as former presidents are unlikely to answer the phone. Reaching them requires informal meetings with aides and underlings, sometimes several of them, as one ascends the chain of command. Be prepared to drink a lot of coffee.
The opportunities, meanwhile, are many. The seven or eight decades between the Revolution and the rise of neoliberalism remain virtually virgin territory. A biography of a Mexican businesswoman has yet to be written. There are, after all, some eighteen biographies of Bill Gates. Trabajo, fortuna y poder. Manuel Espinosa Yglesias, un empresario mexicano del siglo XX. Centro de Estudios Espinosa Yglesias. Business history in Latin America.
La Cruz del Sur: Entrepreneurs and politics in twentieth-century Mexico.
Regional studies and business history in Mexico since The managerial revolution in American business. Ediciones de Cultura Popular.
Joseph Ollivier y su familia, Ethnic entrepreneurs, crony capitalism, and the making of the Franco-Mexican elite. University of Arizona Press. British lions and Mexican eagles business, politics, and empire in the career of Weetman Pearson in Mexico, Mexico, television, and the cold war. University of Nebraska Press.
Politics of property rights. Subjetividad y cultura en la toma de decisiones empresariales: Tres estudios de caso en Aguascalientes.
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