Cosmogenic Dating of Megaliths at Puma Punku | Indiegogo
Samples of andesite stone from Tiwanaku and Puma Punku that http://www. smena.info There are ways to tell the age of at least some stones but not when they. Tonight Ancient Aliens focused on a single site, Puma Punku in Bolivia, .. People have been shaping stones since, well, the "Stone" Age. .. has a campaign to date Puma Punku with a better method - cosmogenic analysis. The archaeological site of Bandurria, dating back BC (located in the Radiocarbon can only measure the age of organic materials, not stone. Machu Pic'chu, Ollantaytambo and Puma Punku using the new Cosmogenic testing.
All around the world are examples of stonemasonry from the period that is equally impressive. The Greek Parthenon, for example, was built a thousand years before Pumapunku, and yet nobody invokes aliens as the only explanation for its great beauty and decorative detailing that more than rivals Pumapunku's angles and cuts.
Puma Punka, Bolivia
At about the same time, the Persians constructed Persepolis with its superlative Palace of Darius, featuring details that are highly comparable to Pumapunku. Stonemasons in India cut the Udayagiri Caves with megalithic doorways that are very similar to those in Pumapunku.
The Tiwanaku did magnificent work, but by no means was it inexplicably superior to what can be found throughout the ancient world. It is unnecessary to invoke aliens to explain the structures. Curiously, if you do an Internet search for Pumapunku, you'll find it almost universally, and quite casually, referred to as a "port".
At least, this is what it's called on the paranormal web pages, which make up the overwhelming bulk of Pumapunku information on the Internet. In fact, it's not a port, and it never was a port. To anyone doing even the most basic research or visiting the area, it's a fairly bizarre assertion, considering that Pumapunku was in the middle of a vast farming nation ofpeople.
Nor are Tiwanaku's structures in locations where they could serve as a port. Pumapunku is just one of several stepped platform constructions that have been excavated at Tiwanaku. If you look at them from above, they're simply squarish enclosures scattered about the area. If you imagine water filling the region — let's pretend just high enough to cover the ground but not the enclosures themselves — then each of these "ports" would be an island unto itself, amid a sea of knee-deep water too shallow to be navigable.
That is, except for the Semi-Subterranean Temple, which being recessed into the ground, would have been underwater. But even that imaginary scenario presumes that the lake could ever reach Tiwanaku. Has this always been the case? At least since the last ice age, yes. Because the sediment at the lake's bottom has been accumulating for some 25, years, it's one of the best places to get data about Earth's climate history, and so it's been extensively studied.
The paleohydrology of Lake Titicaca is thoroughly known. Currently, the water is at its overflow level.
This level has fluctuated about 5 meters in the past century. During the past 4, years, it has dropped as much as 20 meters during drought periods. The maximum it's ever been is about 7 meters above overflow level, which would still locate the shore many kilometers away from Tiwanaku's suburbs and farms. Most of these same paranormal sources that refer to Pumapunku as a port also state that the ancient shoreline is still visible along the surrounding hills, albeit tilted at a strange angle.
Ancient lake levels are often visible in such a way — they're quite prominent throughout Death Valley where I often visit, for example.
In sharp contrast, the cramps used at the Akapana canal were fashioned by the cold hammering of copper-arsenic-nickel bronze ingots. This area might have been viewed as the center of the Andean world, attracting pilgrims from far away to marvel in its beauty. These structures transformed the local landscape; Pumapunku was purposely integrated with Illimani mountain, a sacred peak that the Tiwanaku possibly believed to be home to the spirits of their dead.
This area was believed to have existed between heaven and Earth. The spiritual significance and the sense of wonder would have been amplified into a "mind-altering and life-changing experience"  through the use of hallucinogenic plants.
Examinations of hair samples exhibit remnants of psychoactive substances in many mummies found in Tiwanaku culture from Northern Chile, even those of babies as young as one year of age, demonstrating the importance of these substances to the Tiwanaku. The remains of dismembered bodies have been found throughout the area. Ceramic artifacts depict imagery of warriors, masked with puma skulls, decapitating their enemies and holding trophy skulls, and adorned with belts of human heads with their tongues torn out.
At its peak the Tiwanaku culture dominated the entire Lake Titicaca basin as well as portions of Bolivia and Chile.
A likely scenario involves rapid environmental changepossibly involving an extended drought. Puma Punku is a single part of the greater Tiahuanaco complex. The Puma Punku temple offers one of the best examples of masonry skills in the whole of the pre-Columbian Americas. Other incredibly carved temple complexes such as the Peruvian Inca walls of Sacsayhuaman, or the Inca masonry at Machu Pichu and Ollantaytambo pale to insignificance when compared with the sheer skill, accuracy and perfection achieved at Puma Punku.
Today the site appears 'broken', and has been reduced to piles of scattered geometric blocks. These immense quartzite blocks were designed so as to interlock with each other, creating an architecturally unique temple without precedent in the America's. Puma Punku appears to have been destroyed by an earthquake, perhaps accompanied by a tidal wave from Lake Titicaca.
The Non-Mystery of Pumapunku
Some of the structures on higher ground were once covered with 2 metres or so of earth. The Door of the Puma The Puma punku was an terraced earthen mound originally faced with megalithic blocks. On the northeast and southeast corners of the Puma punku it has meter wide projections that extend This terrace is paved with multiple enormous stone blocks.
The largest of these stone blocks is 7. The second largest stone block found within the Puma punka is 7. Its weight has been estimated to be A complex system of channels conducted rainwater from a sunken court on the summit into the interior of the pyramid, threading it from one terrace to the next.
The side walls of the water channels in the Akapana and at Puma Punku are built with upright stone slabs held together with I-shaped clamps.Inca Documentary - Symbolic Power of Puma Punku and Tiwanaku
Protzen thinks this was to hold the slabs in the proper alignment. Clamps also once pieced together the enormous sandstone slabs used in the construction of the four platforms at Puma Punku. A unique feature at Puma Punku is the use of recessed clamping.
A spectrographic analysis of a surviving clamp showed that it was made of an unusual alloy —