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Init was decided that all guild members must attend the burial of a fellow guild member or his wife.
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From other guilds, we know that the servant of the guild gildeknecht distributed the medallions and that those present subsequently handed them in at the funeral. Those who did not do so had to pay a fine, which increased with time, as did other fines. As the guild grew larger, however, a limitation was introduced. Three early eighteenth-century regulations keurenfrom, andteach us about the customs that had gradually been initiated. At first the seven eldest and seven youngest guild brothers had to carry the coffin, then the fourteen who lived nearest the deceased, and finally the fourteen youngest.
If only for that, the year on the medallion was needed. Regarding the letter S, I wish to point out that in the fine- or art painters fijn- of kunstschilders appeared reluctant to attend burials of the house painters kladschilders.
Attending burials, in the sense of paying last respects to the deceased, essentially ended up as a financial matter: Furthermore, since guild members gradually began to consider guild burial less distinguished deftigthey refrained from attending, an attitude which negatively affected income from fines. Inthe guild therefore decided that the family of a deceased member who was buried outside the guild, would pay a fine of 6 guilders.
It is not clear whether special arrangements — similar to those of the booksellers, for instance — were made by Guild of Saint Luke members wishing to buy off burial attendance duties by paying a fixed yearly amount. How often was the medallion in the Rembrandt House brought to burials between and ? I dare not guess. I assume, however, that Rembrandt frequently chose to pay the fine. I just want to address here the year in question.
InRembrandt had already been settled in Amsterdam for two years. He likely became a member only in that year because of his marriage. That happened frequently, possibly in part because the sons of masters enjoyed certain privileges and membership for the father prior to the birth of sons could be a requirement.
This did not happen in Amsterdam. Only at the end of the eighteenth century did the purveyors of art succeed in occupying a special position within the guild system. Regarding limitations on the number of pupils, we can be certain that these were either a dead letter for the painters, or were intended not for them but for house painters and glazers.
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As a result, good fortune brought him riches and filled his house in Amsterdam with almost innumerable young people of good family, who came to him for instruction and tuition. Each paid him florins a year. Gulden bezahlt, ohne den Nutzen, welchen er aus dieser seiner Lehrlinge Mahlwerken und Kupferstucken erhalten, der sich auch in die bis Gulden baares Gelds belauffen, samt dem, was er durch seine eigneHand-Arbeit erworben.
They were the well-known sculptor Joost Janz [Bilhamer], a painter named Willem Tonisz, and two glazers whom I do not need to name. Willem Tonisz was probably a house painter. Of the four overseers mentioned in a document of December 22,Christoffel Jansz, Jeurriaen Jansz, Cornelis van der Voort, and Frans Willemsz, we recognize the third man as a fine painter. This makes clear that the overseers were in office for two years. So far as can be inferred there were two fine painters among them.
On October 3,the guild overseers, the painters David Colijns and Nicolaes Eliasz [Pickenoy], acted as appraisers [taxateurs] in an official document for notary J. This Dirck Pietersz Wittepaert, better known as Bontepaert, made a declaration as an overseer on May 31,together with his colleagues Cornelis Symonsz and the painter Ysaack van Coninxloo.
Inthe guild assigned the booksellers another overseer on the board, giving the impression that the number of overseers had risen. When in the two overseers of the booksellers, Daniel Elsevier and Johannes van Ravesteyn, set up a new guild together with their fellow professionals, six unnamed overseers of the Guild of Saint Luke protested, indicating that the overseers numbered eight. In the printed ordinances of a later date,I can point out three overseers from January 23, The number of overseers decreased after the exodus of the booksellers in Inone finds — in Appendix I — five overseers in office.
It seems that two fine painters were on the board, namely Jan de Kaersgieter and Pieter Niedeck. I write all of this in such detail to show how little we really know. The other fine painters who functioned as guild overseers remain unknown. We can nevertheless gather from the information available that the Santvoort family of painters played a role for a long time. After all, outgoing officials frequently were reappointed as soon as possible.
More instances of this might well be traced in the future, but certainly appraisal played a role of minor importance for the overseers. We mostly find painters who were involved in the art trade, or art dealers who were not painters. The references renvooien [references concerning arbitrary affairs]on the other end, would certainly have been important. In an undated request from the end of the seventeenth century, the overseers declared that they were so busy with this task — and it concerned paintings as well — that they would like to receive a reasonable salary for their efforts.
The request was never granted. Those books contain not only the actual references or affairs that were passed on to the overseers by the various legal authorities to formulate an expert judgment, but also those cases in which the parties directly turned to the overseers.
The loss of the reference books of the Guild of Saint Luke is hugely regrettable. The books could possibly have provided the answer to the famous case regarding Claudius Civilis, which hung for a short time during in the town hall but was removed for reworking by Rembrandt.
Lucasgildt of het de dochter glijck dan niet ende soo sij seggen dat het haer niet ende gelijckt soo sal hij t veranderen. The servants knechten of the guild are better documented than their overseers. Abraham Gerritsz is documented as a servant in the registers of sales — to be discussed further below — from January 15,until February 9, In later times, the registers of civil servants ambtenboeken list the following names: In contrast to [the practice at] several other guilds, these servants were, at least during the second half of the seventeenth century, not members.
I have nothing to say regarding Abraham Gerritsz. He was discharged for corruption in His successor, Michiel van der Banck, served for only one year and was buried in the Oude Kerk on November 4, His successor Johannes Wijmer was originally a silk merchant zijrederthen became an agent in [serving] until his death in His background was probably more impressive than that of most of his overseers — he was, among other things, a second cousin to the burgomaster Jan Six.
The position of servant of the Guild of Saint Luke, which he occupied until his death, must surely have had its advantages. According to seventeenth-century ordinances, the tasks of the servant mostly concerned sales. Init was established that the servant had to be present at all sales of paintings and would receive twenty-four stuivers per day.
Beforehowever, we also see Abraham Gerritsz as a buyer at auctions. From now on he would receive two guilders per day, unless the sale lasted for more than six days, in that case only thirty stuivers.
For announcing the sale he would also receive thirty stuivers. It was strictly outlined that no one but the servant was permitted to distribute leaflets for the sales biljetten or catalogues. But apparently that happened anyway, because on February 4,this regulation was repeated and the fine set at six guilders. On February 1,the servant was given the right to fine the instigators of secret sales and lotteries, or the raffling of paintings rijfelarijen in inns, as well as to fine the innkeepers or the hosts and sellers.
Inthe sale of books obviously ceased. Nonetheless it must have been an advantageous position. Otherwise a person such as Wijmer would not have been attracted to it. Of the infamous eighteenth-century century sinecures, in which the work was done by substitutes, there is no mention yet.
I will now offer further explanation concerning those sales that are closely connected with the guild. Sales in General The history of the sales goes back to an early date. I owe my story to the printed sources, such as the Rechtsbronnen of Johannes Christiaan Breen and the Handvesten of Herman Noordkerk; to a portfolio with items collected by the latter in the mid-eighteenth century; to the Groot Memoriaal [part of the archive of the burgomasters]; and to the sales registers of the orphanage archives.
The first announcement of sales by the superintendant concierge of the city hall dates from ; he was permitted to hold these sales together with the previously mentioned delegate or messenger bode of the Orphan Chamber.
In time, the superintendant was permitted to hold executive sales [sales of bankrupt estates] only, with the delegate of the Orphan Chamber holding all others.
The salary, which they had to share with the official secretaries of the city secretarissenamounted to 5 percent. If the sellers did the collecting themselves, it was possible that they only paid 1 percent. A separate auctioneer oversaw the sale of ships.
Inthis was a certain Jacques de Vos. He obtained the right to auction all commodities koopmanschappen for a payment of 1 percent, of which one-third went to the official secretaries, one-third to the agents makelaarsif they were involved in the sale, and one-third or two thirds, respectively, to De Vos. Apparently this decision was indeed taken as agents started conducting the auctions themselves; at any rate, they were strictly forbidden to conduct sales.
Jacques de Vos had already died inbut his widow and son continued the activity and even tried to increase their involvement in it. Inthey were forbidden to involve themselves in the sales of the East and West India Companies. At these sales, the messengers of the Orphan Chamber served as auctioneers for these companies.Dating After Divorce For Men - 7 Transformational Tips!
In the course of time, the De Vos family had other auctioneers of commodities work alongside them, and because the first of [these individuals] settled in the paalhuisje on the Nieuwe Brug [New Bridge]they got the name auctioneers of the Nieuwe Brug [afslagers van de Nieuwe Brug], although the sales were actually held throughout the city.
On July 30, a further explanation was given: The problems only disappeared when on December 20,it was decided that apart from a few previous remunerations everything would go into one deposit which would then be divided head for head with the auctioneers of the Nieuwe Brug — then five but later three in number — and the four auctioneers of the Orphan Chamber.
The sales by the auctioneers of the Nieuwe Brug were never of any consequence for the art world, but the two other types were consequential indeed. These will therefore be examined in detail. Executorive Sales Executive sales [of bankrupt estates] were carried out, as we saw, by the superintendant concierge of the town hall. In consecutive order, these were Jacob Huych Tomasz, appointed inand his son Thomas Jacobsz Haringh, appointed after the death of his father in He was succeeded in by Mr.
In turn, he was succeeded in by Jan Wijnkoop, who saw the century out. For us, the most important of them is Thomas Jacobsz Haringh. Thomas married Cornelia Stricke of Utrecht in and made his entrance the following year as superintendant of the town hall. His period in office was not always accompanied by good fortune. He was in arrears of large sums with regard to executed goods sold by him: After his death, the treasurers signed a deed with his children whereby the city received four houses that had belonged to the deceased, thereby cancelling out any other debts.
Among those houses was his heavily mortgaged estate at the Donkere Brug near Baambrugge, which was bought for around These registers were disposed of later on.
Fortunately, another source can provide us with the data for certain sales, and that is the archive of the Bankruptcy Chamber Desolate Boedelskamer. In their journal one can find the receipts that the superintendant recorded every two to four months and thereby the summary of sales with date, name of owner, amount, and sometimes also a description of what was sold. Callousness Lack of Empathy.
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Directors who outsource the bottom layer of staff during a reorganisation with the idea in the back of their minds that the pay ratio will immediately look better: As is establishing the company in a country where remuneration practices are the most favourable. Ethical remuneration policy has two principles: For those reasons, he wanted to forgo it, but the supervisory board members acted as the employer and pushed it through.
Hommen turned out to be right: Should the suitability test for directors and supervisory board members in the financial sector be expanded to all listed companies, for example? Or do we already have too much state supervision? They look in too Cartesian a way at the discipline that the profile suggests they need, and too little at the role or the behavioural complement that the team needs.
Moreover, succession planning in many supervisory boards is still insufficiently professional: Sometimes you see people of whom you are aware that they have not performed well in a certain function simply resurfacing elsewhere in similar positions.
It is therefore important to collect old-fashioned, thorough references. You do not need a suitability test carried out by a third party for this; supervisory board members can do it themselves. Moreover, it is far from easy to determine what exactly the ethical social norms are. There is no definition of these, so what exactly should you make of this? Furthermore, it is a moving target: This is also true of ethical dilemmas. At the beginning of this century, the bribes that Dutch companies paid abroad were apparently simply tax deductible.
Since then, policy surrounding bribery and corruption has been tightened up.
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Therefore as a supervisory board member, you need to take a good look outside, and once again the message is: Also ensure that this discussion is recorded in the minutes, so that at a later date, whether or not a judge has been involved, the information about the grounds on which the decision was taken at the time can be retrieved.
You should also include it in the supervisory boards report in the annual report. There is a huge responsibility on boards to deal with social issues and to communicate about them. To what extent do you see a shift towards businesses as reinforcers of morality? A few years ago, CEOs still fell short in terms of taking up their social responsibility. They were afraid that this would damage the share price.
This does lead to tension with shareholders: I can imagine that some Anglo-Saxon institutional investors might regard Paul Polman as naive, whilst Dutch investors have a more long-term vision, and sometimes even take up an active role with respect to sustainability. Consumers too should be able to take on a more active role when it comes to unethical behaviour by companies. In terms of car sales, Volkswagen has had a highly successful year, despite their cheating software.
It seems that regardless of all the scandals, we are still unaccustomed to discussing ethical choices with one another, in either the boardroom, or in society as a whole.
Over the coming years, we shall need to be far more active in kick-starting that debate: