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In a small group of Spanish-speaking Dominican intellectuals from Santo The western portion of the island is occupied by the republic of Haiti. .. as a superpower, with some buildings dating back to the early sixteenth century. .. I am a senior in high school doing research on dominican republicans for my exam. Dominican Republic and Haiti: country studies / Federal Research. Division mulatto, ruling group that lived well, while their countrymen either struggled to Less senior officers seized the general, deported him, and restored the council had a very short history in the I Domninican Republic, dating back only to the. Each local interest group exploited its position at every opportunity to achieve In the neighboring Dominican Republic, despite the presence of over a million.
The native population was decimated or assimilated within decades of the arrival of Columbus, and the island was repopulated with Spanish colonists and their African slaves. Spanish is the national language, universally spoken today. Light skin color, which is considered to reflect European ancestry, is valued, while dark skin tones reflect the West African slave ancestry.
The Roman Catholic cathedrals still stand and the majority of the population is Roman Catholic. A proud aggressive attitude is admired in sports, business, and politics. Machismo permeates society, especially among rural and low income groups, with males enjoying privileges not accorded to females.
The common expression, Si Dios quiere If God wishesexpresses the belief that personal power is intertwined with one's place in the family, the community, and the grand design of the Deity. People have been forced to accept the strong class system begun by the Spanish and maintained by the strongman leaders where only a few historically prominent families hold a great deal of the wealth and power. Some of the few surviving traits of the gentle Tainos may account for acceptance of the system with relatively few revolts.
The family unit is of primary importance. Relationships among people are more important than schedules and being late for appointments, and people often spend time socializing rather than working. Dominicans are warm, friendly, outgoing, and gregarious. They are very curious about others and forthright in asking personal questions. Children are rarely shy. Confianze trust is highly valued and not quickly or easily gained by outsiders, perhaps as a result of the human rights and economic abuses the people have suffered at the hands of the powerful.
Dominican society is the cradle of blackness in the Americas. It was the port of entry for the first African slaves, only nine years after Columbus arrived. Blacks and mulattoes make up almost 90 percent of the population.
There has been a longstanding tension with Haiti, particularly over the Haitian desire to migrate there. In the early fall of Trujillo's soldiers used machetes, knives, picks, and shovels to slaughter somewhere between ten thousand and thirty-five thousand Haitian civilians, claiming it was a Dominican peasant uprising.
Even loyal personal servants and Haitian spouses of Dominicans were killed by the soldiers. Today there is still great disdain for Haitian and other blacks. Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space A massive migration from rural to urban areas characterized the twentieth century. About 60 percent of Dominicans live in urban areas. The capital, Santo Domingo, is the largest city by far and has a population of 2.
Its population approximately doubled every ten years between and The second and third largest cities, Santiago and La Romana, also experienced rapid growth, especially in the s and s. Santo Domingo was a walled city, modeled after those of medieval Spain, and for three decades was the seat of Spanish power and culture in the New World. Today the area known as the Zona Colonial stands as a monument to Spain's time as a superpower, with some buildings dating back to the early sixteenth century.
The layout of the city followed the classic European grid pattern, with several plazas. Plazas are popular meeting places for area residents, tourists, vendors, taxi drivers, guides, and shoeshine boys.
The plazas usually contain shade trees, park benches, and monuments. Food and Economy Food in Daily Life. The main meal is served at midday and can last up to two hours. La bandera the flag is a popular national dish; the white rice and red beans remind people of the flag colors, hence the name. The third ingredient is stewed meat, and it is usually served with fried plantain and a salad. Another favorite dish is sancocho, a meat, plantain, and vegetable stew. On the coast, fish and conch are enjoyed, and coconut is used to sweeten many seafood Clay jars provide storage in this kitchen in Santo Domingo.
Root vegetables include sweet potatoes, yams, cassava, and potatoes. Small quantities of chicken, beef, pork, or goat are eaten with a meal.
Food is generally not spicy. Dining out is popular and restaurants in Santo Domingo are superior and reasonably priced. The Hotel Lina has been voted one of the ten best restaurants in the world. Even the food sold by street vendors, such as grilled meat or tostones fried plantain pattiesis delicious. Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. On special occasions, such as Christmas or Easter, extended families sit down together for large feasts.
Roasted pig, pigeon peas small yellow beansand boiled chestnuts are served at Christmas.
Fish is the traditional dish at Easter. The Dominican Republic is among the fastest-growing economies in Latin America. Even though the gross domestic product GDP tripled in the last generation, 70 percent of the people are affected by poverty and unemployment is high.
Throughout history, the economy has been based on the production and export of sugar. Sugarcane is still a big cash crop, along with rice, plantains starchy green bananasand bananas. Fluctuating world prices make the market volatile. Land Tenure and Property. Land-tenure patterns reflect both Dominican and international politics. Sugar and cattle production require large tracts of land and ownership has changed over time. In when the United States invaded, the military enacted legislation to facilitate the takeover of Dominican land by U.
Communal lands were broken up and transferred to private ownership. By eleven of the twenty-one sugar mills belonged to U. Cattle raising, an important source and symbol of wealth in the countryside, was feasible for many because the animals were branded and left to graze freely on open land.
Much of the land was expropriated by Trujillo, and later he established a law requiring livestock to be enclosed, ending the free grazing.
By the s the government created state-subsidized credits for cattle production, enabling people to buy land for grazing in an attempt to increase production. Agriculture, including forestry and fishing, contributed about 13 percent of the GDP in Industry, including mining, manufacturing, construction, and power, provided about 32 percent of the GDP in The services sector contributes 55 percent of the GDP. With the relative stability of the Dominican democracy and tax incentives, tourism is the most rapidly growing sector of the economy.
With more hotel rooms than any other Caribbean country and beautiful beaches, tourism in the country is now the largest source of foreign exchange, along with manufacturing in the free trade zones. The government is working to increase electric generating capacity, a key to continued economic growth, and the state-owned electric company was ultimately privatized by Mining of ferro-nickel, gold, and silver has recently surpassed sugar as the biggest source of export earnings.
Manufacturing of food, petroleum products, beverages, and chemicals contributes about 17 percent of the GDP. A rapidly growing part of the manufacturing sector is occurring in the free trade zones, established for multinational corporations.
Products such as textiles, garments, and light electronic goods intended for export are assembled. Industries locate in these zones because they are permitted to pay low wages for labor intensive activities; also, the Dominican government grants exemptions from duties and taxes on exports.
The Dominican Republic is the world's fourth-largest location of free trade zones, and much of the nation's industrial work occurs there. Two-thirds of these zones are owned by U. Most are assembly and factory workers who produce electronics, jewelry, furniture, clothing, and shoes for export.
Nevertheless, free trade zones have created much-needed jobs and have brought more advanced technology to the island. Companies pay rent and purchase utilities and supplies. On most sugarcane farms, working conditions are dreadful, and Dominicans are too proud to work for such low wages.Haitian & Dominican Women
Companies hire Haitians to work the fields for twelve to fifteen hours a day. Workers are as young as eight years old.
There are no cooking or sanitary facilities. Children born to Haitian sugarcane workers effectively have no country and no medical or educational benefits. Social Stratification Classes and Castes. Dominican social stratification is influenced by racial and economic issues. The upper class is historically descended from European ancestry and is light skinned. The lower class is most often black, descendants of the African slave population or Haitians. The mulattoes are people of mixed African and European ancestry and make up the majority of the population; they have created a growing middle class.
This middle class is divided into indio claro, who have lighter skin, and indio obscuro, who are darker skinned. The term indio Indian is used because many Dominicans do not yet acknowledge their African roots. Symbols of Social Stratification. The symbols of social stratification are similar to those in Western cultures.
Many of the growing middle-class population own homes and cars, and enjoy updating them with the latest electronic appliances. Their children graduate from high school, and may go on to college. People take pride in their personal appearance and prefer New York fashions and jewelry. However, there is still a large segment of the population which lives in urban slums and poor rural areas without electricity or running water.
The Dominican Republic is divided into twenty-nine provinces, each run by a governor who is appointed by the president. The president and vice president and a bicameral Congress of thirty senators and deputies are elected by popular vote every four years. The voting age is eighteen.
A nine-member Supreme Court is formally appointed every four years by the Senate, but is greatly influenced by the president. Leadership and Political Officials. One of the most influential political parties is the Dominican Revolutionary Party PRD and it has a liberal philosophy. Unfortunately, many people aspire to be elected to government positions so that they can obtain bribes. Each time government salaries are cut, the corruption in government grows.
Also, government contracts are awarded to business in return for money paid directly to the official who makes the decision. Social Problems and Control. During much of its history the Dominican Republic has been governed by strongarm dictators who have denied human rights to their citizens, particularly darker-skinned people. The most recent constitution was adopted in after the civil war following Trujillo's rule.
Senior dating group in haiti and the dominican
Although it puts few limitations on the powers of the president, it stresses civil rights and gives Dominicans liberties they had never before been granted. In reforms were made to reduce the military's political involvement in order to prevent a coup. The military were given civic duties such as building roads, medical and educational facilities, and houses, and replanting forests.
The judicial branch is subject to the political mood since they are appointed every four years. Since the s the court has become more independent, even if it is not an equal branch of government. Military service is voluntary and lasts for four years. In the armed forces totaled 24, people, with most in the army, followed by the air force and the navy.
There are about fifteen thousand members of the paramilitary. The defense budget in was slightly less than the amount spent on welfare. Social Welfare and Change Programs A voluntary national contributory scheme exists to provide insurance coverage for sickness, unemployment, dental injury, maternity, old age, and death.
Only about 42 percent of the population benefits from it. About 40 percent of Dominicans live in rural areas such as the village of Honda Valle. Nongovernmental Organizations and Other Associations Many nongovernmental organizations exist. They implement a wide variety of projects in agriculture, microenterprise, water and sanitation, and health. In the s and s, after the end of the Trujillo regime, there was an increase in Dominican interest groups. For example, the Central Electoral Junta is an independent board that monitors elections.
The Collective of Popular Organizations is a political pressure group. Many organizations exist to promote business, including the Dominican Center of Promotion of Exportation and the Dominican Sugar Institute.
About one-quarter of the lower-class people are unemployed. Among this group, women tend to find jobs more easily than men, especially in rural areas, and are paid less.
Women often support their households, but do not make enough to bring them out of poverty. The Relative Status of Women and Men. How are Haitians going to eat, since they don't produce anything? One of the hosts suggests Haiti is trying to discredit the Dominican Republic in the eyes of the international community. Haitians "are unappreciative of this country," this host says. Everything the international media has reported about the mistreatment of Haitians is wrong, he says.
The rhetoric is hateful and racist. We turn the radio off. Men play dominoes on the sidewalk of Santo Domingo's Little Haiti neighborhood. This barrio may be called "Little Haiti," but three of the men don't hesitate to share their views of Haitians in the Dominican Republic. Another refers to one of this country's darkest chapters, the massacre of thousands of Haitians by orders of Dominican dictator Rafael Trujillo. All the while, one of the domino players is not speaking.
He is younger and darker-skinned than the others. The same man who said he would burn Haitians nods toward the younger man and says, "We treat them better than anyone else.
The fear of violence Ramona Ramirez runs a food kiosk in the Ortega neighborhood of Moca, a city just east of Santiago. Dominicans and Haitians lived in Ortega peacefully for years, she says. Until a year ago. Ramona Ramirez's relative was kidnapped and killed in Moca, sparking violence and international condemnation.
His face was swollen from an apparent beating. His legs were bound. When the news of the killing reached the neighborhood: It just about came to that. Dominican vigilantes armed with sticks and machetes assaulted their Haitian neighbors, shoving a woman to the ground as she screamed and grabbing a man with dreadlocks and cutting off some of his curls with a pocketknife.
The mob broke into Haitians' homes, destroying belongings with baseball bats and hoes and removing personal items and setting them ablaze.
The incident, which came to symbolize the severity of the tensions between Dominicans and Haitians, was captured on video and shared widely by human rights groups. After the attacks, all the Haitians in Ortega fled.
The Diario Libre newspaper reported that some Haitians left the neighborhood. So they can stab me? This house was among those raided in attacks on Haitians in Moca. There were four of us in the car as we approached the neighborhood -- myself, a photographer, a Dominican driver and a Haitian guide.
Our guide rolled down his window and asked two Haitian workers for directions.
Inter-racial dating and Race Relations in the Dominican Rep
The Ortega neighborhood starts there, one of the workers said, pointing across the street. But you can't go there, he added, motioning at our Haitian guide. No Haitians allowed, the worker said.
If you enter, you risk getting attacked. There was a tense moment inside the car. Our guide insisted on going, suggesting the risk must be exaggerated. But our driver feared a possible attack, saying the risk was legitimate.
The workers persuaded our Haitian companion to stay with them and chat while the rest of us crossed the street. There was some junk out front, but it didn't seem abandoned. There was a radio playing inside and a motorcycle in the gravel driveway. Elpidio asked us not to cross the fence and would not tell us who, if anybody, was living inside now that the Haitians were gone.
Wendy Osirus is among those who have organized campaigns to help immigrants gain legal status. Fighting for himself and others In Batey Baraguana, an impoverished sugar worker's village near Santiago, Wendy Osirus makes the rounds with the skill of a politician, asking about each resident's immigration status. He congratulates those who gained legal status and patiently answers questions for the others. Wendy moved to the Dominican Republic from Haiti when he was 4.
Now 29 and studying law, he created an organization to teach people how to apply for legal status and avoid scams. His small team has helped restore citizenship or get legal work status for thousands of immigrants and Dominicans of Haitian descent.
The government passed the new immigration laws, he says, but didn't create a campaign to explain how to benefit from them. Given the history of racism in the country, Antoine says, it is hard not to consider that the laws were set up to fail the migrants. It was the economic and political uncertainty after a coup in Haiti that pushed Wendy's family to leave Cap-Haitien and move to the Dominican Republic in Growing up in Santiago, Wendy recalls other students in his public school feeling pity for him because of the unrest in Haiti.
That view changed after the devastating earthquake, which killed hundreds of thousands of Haitians and displaced more than a million others. As Haiti's sole neighbor, the Dominican Republic was forced to absorb some of the costs associated with the disaster, Wendy says. In Santiago, Wendy showed me the remains of what was once a boarding house for Haitians.
Before the immigration crackdown -- before Dominican landlords were hesitant to rent to undocumented Haitians -- this building had maybe 10 small rooms divided by a narrow hallway. All the tenants shared a single bathroom at the end of the hall. The building was gutted for a carpentry shop. The landlord, Juan Mata, recalls at least four immigration raids on the property in the past few years.
He hated how the immigration agents would knock down the doors to the boarding house each time. If they don't have documents, I can't rent them a room. Creating a home away from home Photos: Creating a home away from home Building a school in Jacmel, Haiti, isn't what David Palmer had in mind when he started teaching children across the border in the Dominican Republic five years earlier.
Palmer, not pictured, studied in the Dominican Republic while in college and was struck by the children he saw living in poverty. The Bloomfield, Michigan, native returned and set up the Joan Rose Foundation to teach and provide meals for students.
But he soon found himself and his school caught up in the country's immigration crisis. Hide Caption 1 of 12 Photos: Creating a home away from home Palmer, seen at left overseeing the Jacmel construction, named his foundation after his grandmother. Over time, Dominicans withdrew -- partly, Palmer suspects, because the school was mixed. Many, he said, would rather see their children miss the one meal a day the school assured than be associated with "the Haitian school. If they get in an argument, they're likely to call each other "maldito Haitiano" -- a "damn Haitian.
Households typically are made up of nuclear family members and adopted children or young relatives. Elderly widows and widowers may live with their children and grandchildren. The husband is thought of as the owner of the house and must plant gardens and tend livestock.
Haiti and the Dominican Republic: Faces of a divided island - CNN
However, the house typically is associated with the woman, and a sexually faithful woman cannot be expelled from a household and is thought of as the manager of the property and the decision maker regarding use of funds from the sale of garden produce and household animals. Men and women inherit equally from both parents. Upon the death of a landowner, land is divided in equal portions among the surviving children.
In practice, land often is ceded to specific children in the form of a sales transaction before a parent dies. Kinship is based on bilateral affiliation: One is equally a member of one's father's and mother's kin groups. Kinship organization differs from that of the industrial world with regard to ancestors and godparentage. Ancestors are given ritual attention by the large subset of people who serve the lwa. They are believed to have the power to influence the lives of the living, and there are certain ritual obligations that must be satisfied to appease them.
Godparentage is ubiquitous and derives from Catholic tradition. The parents invite a friend or acquaintance to sponsor a child's baptism. This sponsorship creates a relationship not only between the child and the godparents but also between the child's parents and the godparents.
In some areas infants are given purgatives immediately after birth, and in some regions the breast is withheld from newborns for the first twelve to forty-eight hours, a practice that has been linked to instruction from misinformed Western-trained nurses. Liquid supplements usually are introduced within the first two weeks of life, and food supplements often are begun thirty days after birth and sometimes earlier.
Infants are fully weaned at eighteen months. Child Rearing and Education. Very young children are indulged, but by the age of seven or eight most rural children engage in serious work. Children are important in retrieving household water and firewood and helping to cook and clean around the house.
Children look after livestock, help their parents in the garden, and run errands. Parents and guardians are often harsh disciplinarians, and working-age children may be whipped severely.
Children are expected to be respectful to adults and obedient to family members, even to siblings only a few years older than themselves. They are not allowed to talk back or stare at adults when being scolded. They are expected to say thank you and please. If a child is given a piece of fruit or bread, he or she must immediately begin breaking the food and distributing it to other children.
The offspring of elite families are notoriously spoiled and are reared from an early age to lord it over their less fortunate compatriots. Tremendous importance and prestige are attached to education. Most rural parents try to send their children at least to primary school, and a child who excels and whose parents can afford the costs is quickly exempted from the work demands levied on other children.
Fosterage restavek is a system in which children are given to other individuals or families for the purpose of performing domestic services. There is an expectation that the child will be sent to school and that the fostering will benefit the child. The most important ritual events in the life of a child are baptism and the first communion, which is more common among the middle class and the elite.
Both events are marked by a celebration including Haitian colas, a cake or sweetened bread rolls, sweetened rum beverages, and, if the family can afford it, a hot meal that includes meat. Traditionally, there has been a very small, educated urban-based elite, but in the last thirty years a large and rapidly increasing number of educated citizens have come from relatively humble rural origins, although seldom from the poorest social strata.
These people attend medical and engineering schools, and may study at overseas universities. There is a private university and a small state university in Port-au-Prince, including a medical school.
Both have enrollments of only a few thousand students. Many offspring of middle-class and The carnival that precedes Lent is the most popular Haitian festival. Visitors to a household never leave empty-handed or without drinking coffee, or at least not without an apology. Failure to announce a departure, is considered rude. People feel very strongly about greetings, whose importance is particularly strong in rural areas, where people who meet along a path or in a village often say hello several times before engaging in further conversation or continuing on their way.
Men shake hands on meeting and departing, men and women kiss on the cheek when greeting, women kiss each other on the cheek, and rural women kiss female friends on the lips as a display of friendship. Young women do not smoke or drink alcohol of any kind except on festive occasions. Men typically smoke and drink at cockfights, funerals, and festivities but are not excessive in the consumption of alcohol. Men are more prone to smoke tobacco, particularly cigarettes, than to use snuff.
Men and especially women are expected to sit in modest postures. Even people who are intimate with one another consider it extremely rude to pass gas in the presence of others.
Haitians say excuse me eskize-m when entering another person's space. Brushing the teeth is a universal practice. People also go to great lengths to bathe before boarding public buses, and it is considered proper to bathe before making a journey, even if this is to be made in the hot sun.
Women and especially men commonly hold hands in public as a display of friendship; this is commonly mistaken by outsiders as homosexuality. Women and men seldom show public affection toward the opposite sex but are affectionate in private. People haggle over anything that has to do with money, even if money is not a problem and the price has already been decided or is known.
A mercurial demeanor is considered normal, and arguments are common, animated, and loud. People of higher class or means are expected to treat those beneath them with a degree of impatience and contempt. In interacting with individuals of lower status or even equal social rank, people tend to be candid in referring to appearance, shortcomings, or handicaps.
Violence is rare but once started often escalates quickly to bloodshed and serious injury. The official state religion is Catholicism, but over the last four decades Protestant missionary activity has reduced the proportion of people who identify themselves as Catholic from over 90 percent in to less than 70 percent in Haiti is famous for its popular religion, known to its practitioners as "serving the lwa " but referred to by the literature and the outside world as voodoo vodoun.
Long stereotyped by the outside world as "black magic," vodoun is actually a religion whose specialists derive most of their income from healing the sick rather than from attacking targeted victims. Many people have rejected voodoo, becoming instead katolik fran "unmixed Catholics" who do not combine Catholicism with service to the lwa or levanjilProtestants. The common claim that all Haitians secretly practice voodoo is inaccurate. Catholics and Protestants generally believe in the existence of lwa, but consider them demons to be avoided rather than family spirits to be served.
The percentage of those who explicitly serve the family lwa is unknown but probably high. Aside from the priests of the Catholic Church and thousands of Protestant ministers, many of them trained and supported by evangelical missions from the United States, informal religious specialists proliferate.
Females are viewed as having the same spiritual powers as males, though in practice there are more houngan than manbo. Rituals and Holy Places. People make pilgrimages to a series of holy sites.
Those sites became popular in association with manifestations of particular saints and are marked by unusual geographic features such as the waterfall at Saut d'Eau, the most famous of sacred sites. Waterfalls and certain species of large trees are especially sacred because they are believed to be the homes of spirits and the conduits through which spirits enter the world of living humans.
Death and the Afterlife. Beliefs concerning the afterlife depend on the religion of the individual. Strict Catholics and Protestants believe in the existence of reward or punishment after death. Concepts of reward and punishment in the afterlife are alien to vodoun. The moment of death is marked by ritual wailing among family members, friends, and neighbors. Funerals are important social events and involve several days of social interaction, including feasting and the consumption of rum.
Family members come from far away to sleep at the house, and friends and neighbors congregate in the yard. Men play dominoes while the women cook.
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Burial monuments and other mortuary rituals are often costly and elaborate. People are increasingly reluctant to be buried underground, preferring to be interred above ground in a kavan elaborate multi chambered tomb that may cost more than the house in which the individual lived while alive.
Expenditures on mortuary ritual have been increasing and have been interpreted as a leveling mechanism that redistributes resources in the rural economy. Medicine and Health Care Malaria, typhoid, tuberculosis, intestinal parasites, and sexually transmitted diseases take a toll on the population. Estimates of HIV among those ages twenty-two to forty-four years are as high as 11 percent, and estimates among prostitutes in the capital are as high as 80 percent.
There is less than one doctor per eight-thousand people. Medical facilities are poorly funded and understaffed, and most health care workers are incompetent. Life expectancy in was under fifty-one years. In the absence of modern medical care, an elaborate system of indigenous healers has evolved, including Women are typically responsible for household maintenance and marketing garden produce.
People have tremendous faith in informal healing procedures and commonly believe that HIV can be cured.
With the spread of Pentecostal evangelicalism, Christian faith healing has spread rapidly. Secular Celebrations Associated with the beginning of the religious season of Lent, Carnival is the most popular and active festival, featuring secular music, parades, dancing in the streets, and abundant consumption of alcohol. Carnival is preceded by several days of rara bands, traditional ensembles featuring large groups of specially dressed people who dance to the music of vaccines bamboo trumpets and drums under the leadership of a director who blows a whistle and wields a whip.
Other festivals include Independence Day 1 JanuaryBois Cayman Day 14 August, celebrating a legendary ceremony at which slaves plotted the revolution inFlag Day 18 Mayand the assassination of Dessalines, the first ruler of independent Haiti 17 October. The Arts and Humanities Support for the Arts. The bankrupt government provides occasional token support for the arts, typically for dance troupes.
Haitian literature is written primarily in French. Haitians have a predilection for decoration and bright colors. Haitian painting became popular in the s when a school of "primitive" artists encouraged by the Episcopal Church began in Port-au-Prince. Since that time a steady flow of talented painters has emerged from the lower middle class. However, elite university-schooled painters and gallery owners have profited the most from international recognition.