Hermes (Marvel Comics) - Wikipedia
Hermes god of transitions and boundaries in dating. Janus was also involved in spatial transitions, presiding over home doors, city gates and boundaries. Hermes, or Mercury, the god of travellers, thiefs and shepherds in Greek mythology. Mercury from The Gods Who Preside Over the Planets Master I. ( German, active Date: Hermes (Greek), god of transitions and boundaries. In ancient Roman religion and myth, Janus is the god of beginnings, gates, transitions, time, .. The rite might go back to times pre-dating the founding of Rome. . involved in spatial transitions, presiding over home doors, city gates and boundaries. .. This interpretation would then identify Janus with Greek god Hermes.
She has been confused or conflated with Penelopethe wife of Odysseus. The Oreadsthe nymphs of the mountains were said to mate with Hermes in the highlands, breeding more of their kind.
Tanagra was a nymph of for whom the gods Ares and Hermes competed in a boxing match. Hermes won and carried her off to Tanagra in Boeotia. The Homeric Hymn 4 to Hermes which tells the story of the god's birth and his subsequent theft of Apollo's sacred cattle, invokes him as the one "of many shifts polytroposblandly cunning, a robber, a cattle driver, a bringer of dreams, a watcher by night, a thief at the gates, one who was soon to show forth wonderful deeds among the deathless gods.
In addition to the lyreHermes was believed to have invented many types of racing and the sports of wrestling and boxing, and therefore was a patron of athletes. Evelyn-White's translation, publishedis used on the Perseus Project. Callimachus said that Hermes disguised himself as a cyclops to scare the Oceanides and was disobedient to his mother.
Aeschylus had called him by this epithet several times. He participated in the Gigantomachy in defense of Olympus; was given the task of bringing baby Dionysus to be cared for by Ino and Athamas and later by nymphs of Asia, followed HeraAthena and Aphrodite in a beauty contest; favored the young Hercules by giving him a sword when he finished his education and lent his sandals to Perseus.
And the cool stainless spring gushes out. Kriophoros In ancient Greek cult, kriophoros Greek: It becomes an epithet of Hermes: Argicidameaning "Argus-slayer",   recalls his slaying of the hundred-eyed giant Argus Panopteswho was watching over the heifer-nymph Io in the sanctuary of Queen Hera herself in Argos. Hermes placed a charm on Argus's eyes with the caduceus to cause the giant to sleep, after this he slew the giant. Audin who interprets the god as the issue of a long process of development, starting with the Sumeric cultures, from the two solar pillars located on the eastern side of temples, each of them marking the direction of the rising sun at the dates of the two solstices: These two pillars would be at the origin of the theology of the divine twinsone of whom is mortal related to the NE pillar, as confining with the region where the sun does not shine and the other is immortal related to the SE pillar and the region where the sun always shines.
Later these iconographic models evolved in the Middle East and Egypt into a single column representing two torsos and finally a single body with two heads looking at opposite directions.
Temples[ edit ] The temple of Janus with closed doors, on a sestertius issued under Nero in 66 AD from the mint at Lugdunum Numa built the Ianus geminus also Janus Bifrons, Janus Quirinus or Portae Bellia passage ritually opened at times of war, and shut again when Roman arms rested.
About the exact location and aspect of the temple there has been much debate among scholars. It contained a statue of the god with the right hand showing the number and the left the number 65—i. However American scholars L.
Ross Taylor and L. Adams Holland on the grounds of a passage of Statius  maintain that it was an earlier structure tradition has it the Ianus Quadrifrons was brought to Rome from Falerii  and that Domitian only surrounded it with his new forum.
Cult epithets[ edit ] One way of investigating the complex nature of Janus is by systematically analysing his cultic epithets: Carmen Saliare[ edit ] As may be expected the opening verses of the Carmen,  are devoted to honouring Janus, thence were named versus ianuli.
Only part of the versus ianuli and two of the iovii are preserved. Many reconstructions have been proposed: Veniet potissimum melios eum recum. Diuum eum patrem or partem cante, diuum deo supplicate.
Conseuius the Sower, which opens the carmen and is attested as an old form of Consivius in Tertullian ;  Patultius: Other sources[ edit ] The above-mentioned sources give: Patulcius and Clusivius Macrobius above I 9, Even though the lists overlap to a certain extent five epithets are common to Macrobius's and Lydus's listthe explanations of the epithets differ remarkably.
Macrobius's list and explanation are probably based directly on Cornelius Labeo 's work, as he cites this author often in his Saturnalia, as when he gives a list of Maia 's cult epithets  and mentions one of his works, Fasti. Labeo himself, as it is stated in the passage on Maia, read them in the lists of indigitamenta of the libri pontificum. On the other hand, Lydus's authority cannot have consulted these documents precisely because he offers different and sometimes bizarre explanations for the common epithets: While numerous gods share this cultic epithet it seems the Romans felt it was typically pertinent to Janus.
He is the first of the gods and thus their father: Although the etymology of the word is unclear,  it is certainly related to his most typical character, that of having two faces or heads. The proof are the numerous equivalent expressions. It did not give rise to a new epithet though. Janus as the Gatekeeper has jurisdiction over every kind of door and passage and the power of opening or closing them.
According to some scholars, mostly Francophone, it looks to be strictly related to the ideas of the passage of the Roman people from war back to peace, from the condition of miles, soldier, to that of quiris, citizen occupied in peaceful business, as the rites of the Porta Belli imply.
This is in fact the usual sense of the word quirites in Latin. Koch on the other hand sees the epithet Janus Quirinus as a reflection of the god's patronage over the two months beginning and ending the year, after their addition by king Numa in his reform of the calendar.
This interpretation too would befit the liminal nature of Janus. There is no surviving evidence of this name in Latin, although the rite is attested by Ovid for the kalendae of January  and by Paul.
The context could allow an Etruscan etymology.
Janus - Wikipedia
Iunonius[ edit ] Janus owes the epithet Iunonius to his function as patron of all kalends, which are also associated with Juno. At the time when the rising of the new moon was observed by the pontifex minor the rex sacrorum assisted by him offered a sacrifice to Janus in the Curia Calabra while the regina sacrorum sacrificed to Juno in the regia. This point bears on the nature of Janus and Juno and is at the core of an important dispute: Among Anglophone scholars Frazer and Cook have suggested an interpretation of Janus as uranic supreme god.
Whatever the case, it is certain that Janus and Juno show a peculiar reciprocal affinity: These epithets, which swap the functional qualities of the gods, are the most remarkable apparent proof of their proximity. Consivius[ edit ] Consivius, sower, is an epithet that reflects the tutelary function of the god at the first instant of human life and of life in general, conception.
This function is a particular case of his function of patron of beginnings.
As far as man is concerned it is obviously of the greatest importance, even though both Augustine and some modern scholars see it as minor. He though does not consider Conseuius to be an epithet of Janus but a theonym in its own right.
Hermes (Mercury) – Greek God of Transitions and Boundaries
The interpretation of Consus as god of advice is already present in Latin authors  and is due to a folk etymology supported by the story of the abduction of the Sabine women, which happened on the day of the Consualia aestivasaid to have been advised by Consus.
He gives the lyre to his brother, but asks in return the herd of heifers that has been stolen.
The feud between the two brothers ends successfully with their commitment to eternal support, love and friendship. The sly and shifty Hermes quickly wins the favor of the other gods. First of all, Zeus appoints him as his preacher and negotiator. Confident about his cleverness and cunning, he gives him the winged sandals and entrusts him to confidential and critical missions. As a tireless runner and as fast messenger, he always offers his services, mainly, to the other gods.
He hires him to his kingdom and instructs to him the call and transfer of the dead to their new home. Hermes, with the jurisdictions that Hades offers him, is the only god who crosses and acts in the three worlds: In most mythological themes and incidents, Hermes takes place with the three most basic properties: During the War with the Giants, wearing the cap that made him invisible, Hermes kills Hippolytus.
At the same time he helps his father, Zeus, in his confrontation with Tyfoea. Hermes, upon instructions from his father, manages to steal the beautiful Io, which Hera had transformed into heifer. He succeeded to put to sleep her guardian Argus by playing a tune with his lumen tubethen he managed to blind him and finally to cut his head.
When the first Greek cities were created, each god decided to take one or more cities under protection. In these cities major shrines were erected and the most glorious feasts and sacrifices were dedicated to them.
For who would be the protector of a city, sometimes it was decided by the rest of the Olympians, other times by some smaller deities and sometimes by the king and its inhabitants.
The resourceful god managed to free him and bring him back to Mount Olympus. Apollo confided little Asclepius, son of his unfaithful lover Koronida, in the hands of Hermes. Jonah, abandoned at the rocks of Acropolis from his mother Creusa was transferred by Hermes to the oracle of Delphi, in order to be close to his father Apollo.
The transfer of Phrixus and Elli on the Aegean was also a success thanks to Hermes and the golden ram he had given to Nefeli. Odysseus Ulyssesin the period that he was located on the island of Circe, also accepts the help of Hermes. With the instigation of Zeus, he intervenes and notifies Calypso about the, relative to the fate of Odysseus, decision of the gods. Perseus, like all the other heroes, also receives the support of Hermes. The god is giving him a diamond sickle and helps him to kill Medusa and cut off her head.
Hermes also plays a very important role in the incidents that are prior to, during and at the end of the Trojan War. Originally, Hermes was the one who led the three goddesses to Mount Ida, where Paris chose the one that was the most beautiful.
Hermes (Marvel Comics)
Hermes also was the one who was sent by the gods to Paris and informed him about their decisions. During the Trojan War, he was proposed by the gods to steal the body of Hector, which was abused by Achilles.
Shortly after, he again, having transformed into a mortal, accompanied the old man Priamos to the tent of Achilles to ask the dead body of his son Hector. Finally, at the end of the Trojan War, Hermes again descended to Mycenae, to warn Aegisthus for what he was destined to suffer if he decided to marry Clytemnestra.
The actions of Hermes to the Underworld as an intermediary and savior are not inferior to his actions as a messenger.