BBC News - In pictures: Harassed Bangladeshi women turn to karate
Specially selected young women in Bangladesh are training to 'Many men on the roads, including bus drivers, just don't know how to drive,'. Results 1 - 20 of 30 Hundreds of photos and profiles of women seeking romance, love and secure men who can be supportive while also respecting their female When it comes to dating, Bangladeshi women feel it to be a serious step, one. Find the perfect Bangladeshi Man stock photos and editorial news pictures A tree climber known locally as a gachee collects juice from a date palm tree Gachees Rohingya man carries an elderly woman after the wooden boat they were.
The major crops are rice, jute, wheat, tea, sugarcane, and vegetables. In recent years industrial growth has occurred primarily in the garment and textile industries. Jute processing and jute product fabrication remain major industries.
Overall, industry accounted for about 28 percent of gross domestic product GDP in Primary export markets are for jute used in carpet backing, burlap, and ropefish, garments, and textiles. Agriculture accounted for about 25 percent of the GDP in Transporting straw on the Ganges River Delta.
The majority of Bangladeshi, about 75 percent, are agricultural workers. The division of labor is based on age and education. Young children are economically productive in rural areas, hauling water, watching animals, and helping with postharvest processing. The primary agricultural tasks, however, are performed by men. Education allows an individual to seek employment outside the agricultural sector, although the opportunities for educated young men in rural areas are extremely limited.
A service or industry job often goes to the individual who can offer the highest bribe to company officials. Social Stratification Classes and Castes. The Muslim class system is similar to a caste structure. The ashraf is a small upperclass of old-money descendants of early Muslim officials and merchants whose roots are in Afghanistan, Turkey, and Iran. Some ashraf families trace their lineage to the Prophet Mohammed. The rest of the population is conceived of as the indigenous majority atraf.
This distinction mirrors the Hindu separation between the Brahman and those in lower castes. While both Muslim and Hindu categories are recognized by educated people, the vast majority of citizens envision class in a more localized, rural context. In rural areas, class is linked to the amount of land owned, occupation, and education. A landowner with more than five acres is at the top of the socioeconomic scale, and small subsistence farmers are in the middle. At the bottom of the scale are the landless rural households that account for about 30 percent of the rural population.
Landowning status reflects socioeconomic class position in rural areas, although occupation and education also play a role. The most highly educated people hold positions requiring literacy and mathematical skills, such as in banks and government offices, and are generally accorded a higher status than are farmers.
Small businessmen may earn as much as those who have jobs requiring an education but have a lower social status. Hindu castes also play a role in the rural economy. Hindu groups are involved in the hereditary occupations that fill the economic niches that support a farming-based economy. Small numbers of higher caste groups have remained in the country, and some of those people are large landowners, businessmen, and service providers.
In urban areas the great majority of people are laborers. There is a middle class of small businessmen and midlevel office workers, and above this is an emerging entrepreneurial group and upper-level service workers.
Symbols of Social Stratification. One of the most obvious symbols of class status is dress. The traditional garment for men is the lungi, a cloth tube skirt that hangs to the ankles; for women, the sari is the norm. The lungi is worn by most men, except those who consider themselves to have high socioeconomic status, among whom pants and shirt are worn.
Also indicative of high standing are loose white cotton pajama pants and a long white shirt. White dress among men symbolizes an occupation that does not require physical labor. A man with high standing will not be seen physically carrying anything; that task is left to an assistant or laborer. Saris also serve as class markers, with elaborate and finely worked cloth symbolizing high status.
Poverty is marked by the cheap, rough green or indigo cotton cloth saris of poor women. Gold jewelry indicates a high social standing among women. A concrete-faced house and a ceramic tile roof provide evidence of wealth. An automobile is well beyond the means of most people, and a motorcycle is a sign of status. Color televisions, telephones, and electricity are other symbols associated with wealth. The People's Republic of Bangladesh is a parliamentary democracy that includes a president, a prime minister, and a unicameral parliament Jayitya Shongshod.
Three hundred members of parliament are elected to the seat legislature in local elections held every five years. Thirty seats are reserved for women members of parliament. The prime minister, who is appointed by the president, must have the support of a majority of parliament members. The president is elected by the parliament every five years to that largely ceremonial post. The country is divided into four divisions, twenty districts, subdistricts, union parishads, and villages.
In local politics, the most important political level is the union in rural areas; in urban regions, it is the municipality pourashava. Members are elected locally, and campaigning is extremely competitive.
Leadership and Political Officials. There are more than 50 political parties. Party adherence extends from the national level down to the village, where factions with links to the national parties vie for local control and help solve local disputes. Leaders at the local level are socioeconomically well-off individuals who gain respect within the party structure, are charismatic, and have strong kinship ties. Local leaders draw and maintain supporters, particularly at election time, by offering tangible, relatively small rewards.
The Awami League is a secular-oriented, formerly socialist-leaning party. It is not stringently anti-India, is fairly liberal with regard to ethnic and religious groups, and supports a free-market economy. Social Problems and Control. Legal procedures are based on the English common-law system, and supreme court justices and lower-level judges are appointed by the president. District courts at the district capitals are the closest formal venues for legal proceedings arising from local disputes.
There are police forces only in the cities and towns. When there is a severe conflict or crime in rural areas, it may take days for the police to arrive. In rural areas, a great deal of social control takes place informally. When a criminal is caught, justice may be apportioned locally.
In the case of minor theft, a thief may be beaten by a crowd. Police may be paid to ensure that they do not investigate. Nonviolent disputes over property or rights may be decided through village councils panchayat headed by the most respected heads of the strongest kinship groups.
When mediation or negotiation fails, the police may be called in and formal legal proceedings may begin. People do not conceive of the informal procedures as taking the law into their own hands. The military has played an active role in the development of the political structure and climate of the country since its inception and has been a source of structure during crises. It has been involved in two coups since The only real conflict the army has encountered was sporadic fighting with the Shakti Bahini in the Chittagong Hill Tracts from the mids untilafter which an accord between the government and those tribal groups was produced.
Road workers undertake construction work in Decca. Laborers make up the vast majority of workers in urban areas. Those organizations support project areas such as population control, agricultural and economic development, urban poverty, environmental conservation, and women's economic development. Nongovernmental Organizations and Other Associations The Grameen Bank created the popular microcredit practice, which has given the poor, especially poor women, access to credit.
This model is based on creating small circles of people who know and can influence each other to pay back loans. When one member has repaid a loan, another member of the group becomes eligible to receive credit. Women traditionally are in charge of household affairs and are not encouraged to move outside the immediate neighborhood unaccompanied.
Thus, most women's economic and social lives revolve around the home, children, and family. Islamic practice reserves prayer inside the mosque for males only; women practice religion within the home.
Bangladesh has had two female prime ministers sinceboth elected with widespread popular support, but women are not generally publicly active in politics.
Men are expected to be the heads of their households and to work outside the home. Men often do the majority of the shopping, since that requires interaction in crowded markets. Men spend a lot of time socializing with other men outside the home. The Relative Status of Women and Men. The society is patriarchal in nearly every area of life, although some women have achieved significant positions of political power at the national level.
For ordinary women, movement is confined, education is stressed less than it is for men, and authority is reserved for a woman's father, older brother, and husband.
Marriage, Family, and Kinship Marriage. Marriage is almost always an arranged affair and takes place when the parents, particularly the father, decide that a child should be married. Men marry typically around age twenty-five or older, and women marry between ages fifteen and twenty; thus the husband is usually at least ten years older than the wife.
Muslims allow polygynous marriage, but its occurrence is rare and is dependent on a man's ability to support multiple households. A parent who decides that a child is ready to marry may contact agencies, go-betweens, relatives, and friends to find an appropriate mate. Of immediate concern are the status and characteristics of the potential in-law's family.
Generally an equal match is sought in terms of family economic status, educational background, and piousness. A father may allow his child to choose among five or six potential mates, providing the child with the relevant data on each candidate. It is customary for the child to rule out clearly unacceptable candidates, leaving a slate of candidates from which the father can choose.
An arrangement between two families may be sealed with an agreement on a dowry and the types of gifts to be made to the groom. Among The Sitara star mosque in Dacca. Religion plays a fundamental role in society, and almost every village has a mosque. Divorce is a source of social stigma. A Muslim man may initiate a divorce by stating "I divorce you" three times, but very strong family pressure ordinarily ensures that divorces do not occur.
A divorce can be most difficult for the woman, who must return to her parent's household. The most common unit is the patrilineally-related extended family living in a household called a barhi. A barhi is composed of a husband and wife, their unmarried children, and their adult sons with their wives and children. Grandparents also may be present, as well as patrilineally-related brothers, cousins, nieces, and nephews.
The oldest man is the authority figure, although the oldest woman may exert considerable authority within the household. A barhi in rural areas is composed of three or four houses which face each other to form a square courtyard in which common tasks are done.
Food supplies often are shared, and young couples must contribute their earnings to the household head. Cooking, however, often is done within the constituent nuclear family units. Islamic inheritance rules specify that a daughter should receive one-half the share of a son. However, this practice is rarely followed, and upon a household head's death, property is divided equally among his sons.
Daughters may receive produce and gifts from their brothers when they visit as "compensation" for their lack of an inheritance. A widow may receive a share of her husband's property, but this is rare.
Sons, however, are custom-bound to care for their mothers, who retain significant power over the rest of the household.
The patrilineal descent principle is important, and the lineage is very often localized within a geographic neighborhood in which it constitutes a majority. Lineage members can be called on in times of financial crisis, particularly when support is needed to settle local disputes.
Lineages do not meet regularly or control group resources. Most women give birth in their natal households, to which they return when childbirth is near. A husband is sent a message when the child is born. Five or seven days after the birth the husband and his close male relatives visit the newborn, and a feast and ritual haircutting take place.
The newborn is given an amulet that is tied around the waist, its eye sockets may be blackened with soot or makeup, and a small soot mark is applied to the infant's forehead and the sole of the foot for protection against spirits. Newborns and infants are seldom left unattended. Most infants are in constant contact with their mothers, other women, or the daughters in the household.
Since almost all women breastfeed, infant and mother sleep within close reach. Infants' needs are attended to constantly; a crying baby is given attention immediately. Child Rearing and Education. Children are raised within the extended family and learn early that individual desires are secondary to the needs of the family group.
Following orders is expected on the basis of age; an adult or older child's commands must be obeyed as a sign of respect. Child care falls primarily to household women and their daughters. Boys have more latitude for movement outside the household. Between ages five and ten, boys undergo a circumcision musulmaniusually during the cool months.
There is no comparable ritual for girls, and the menarche is not publicly marked. Most children begin school at age five or six, and attendance tends to drop off as children become more productive within the household female and agricultural economy male. About 75 percent of children attend primary school. The higher a family's socioeconomic status, the more likely it is for both boys and girls to finish their primary educations.
Relatively few families can afford to send their children to college about 17 percentand even fewer children attend a university. Those who enter a university usually come from relatively well-off families. While school attendance drops off overall as the grades increase, females stop attending school earlier than do males.
Great value is placed on higher education, and those who have university degrees and professional qualifications are accorded high status. In rural areas the opportunities for individuals with such experience are limited; thus, most educated people are concentrated in urban areas.
Bangladesh has a number of excellent universities in its largest urban areas that offer both undergraduate through post-graduate degrees. The most prominent universities, most of which are state supported, include: Competition for university admission is intense especially at Dhaka University and admission is dependent on scores received on high school examinations held annually, as in the British system A young girl makes matchboxes in the slums of Khulna.
There is a marked split between rich and poor in most of the country. University life in Bangladesh can be difficult. A four-year degree may actually require five to eight years to complete due to frequent university closings. The student bodies and faculties of universities are heavily politicized along national political party lines.
Protests, strikes, and sporadic political party-based violence are common, as student groups play out national political agendas on their campuses and vie for members. Virtually every university student finds it easier to survive the system by becoming a member of the student wing of a political party.
While the universities are the scenes of political struggle, they are also centers of intellectual and cultural creativity.
Students may obtain excellent training in all fields, including the arts, law, medicine, and engineering. Universities are also somewhat like islands where some of the ordinary rules of social interaction are relaxed. For example, male— female interaction on campuses is more open and less monitored than in society as a whole.
Dance and theater presentations are common, as are academic debates. Etiquette Personal interaction is initiated with the greeting Assalam Waleykum "peace be with you"to which the required response is, Waleykum Assalam "and with you". Among Hindus, the correct greeting is Nomoshkar, as the hands are brought together under the chin.
Women in Bangladesh - Wikipedia
Men may shake hands if they are of equal status but do not grasp hands firmly. Respect is expressed after a handshake by placing the right hand over the heart. Men and women do not shake hands with each other. In same-sex conversation, touching is common and individuals may stand or sit very close. The closer individuals are in terms of status, the closer their spatial interaction is. Leave-taking is sealed with the phrase Khoda Hafez.
Differences in age and status are marked through language conventions. Individuals with higher status are not addressed by personal name; instead, a title or kinship term is used. Visitors are always asked to sit, and if no chairs are available, a low stool or a bamboo mat is provided. It is considered improper for a visitor to sit on the floor or ground. It is incumbent on the host to offer guests something to eat.
In crowded public places that provide services, such as train stations, the post office, or bazaars, queuing is not practiced and receiving service is dependent on pushing and maintaining one's place within the throng. Open staring is not considered impolite.
The symbols and sounds of Islam, such as the call to prayer, punctuate daily life. Bangladeshis conceptualize themselves and others fundamentally through their religious heritage. For example, the nationality of foreigners is considered secondary to their religious identity. Islam is a part of everyday life in all parts of the country, and nearly every village has at least a small mosque and an imam cleric.
Prayer is supposed to be performed five times daily, but only the committed uphold that standard. Friday afternoon prayer is often the only time that mosques become crowded. Throughout the country there is a belief in spirits that inhabit natural spaces such as trees, hollows, and riverbanks. These beliefs are derided by Islamic religious authorities.
Bangladeshi Hindus pay particular attention to the female goddess Durga, and rituals devoted to her are among the most widely celebrated.Tree man disease: Bangladeshi girl, 10, might be first female with rare skin syndrome - TomoNews
The imam is associated with a mosque and is an important person in both rural and urban society, leading a group of followers.
The imam's power is based on his knowledge of the Koran and memorization of phrases in Arabic. Relatively few imams understand Arabic in the spoken or written form. An imam's power is based on his ability to persuade groups of men to act in conjunction with Islamic rules. In many villages the imam is believed to have access to the supernatural, with the ability to write charms that protect individuals from evil spirits, imbue liquids with holy healing properties, or ward off or reverse of bad luck.
Brahman priests perform rituals for the Hindu community during the major festivals when offerings are made but also in daily acts of worship.
They are respected, but Hinduism does not have the codified hierarchical structure of Islam. Thus, a Brahman priest may not have a position of leadership outside his religious duties. Rituals and Holy Places. The primary Islamic holidays in Bangladesh include: Eid-ul-Azha the tenth day of the Muslim month Zilhajin which a goat or cow is sacrificed in honor of Allah; Shob-i-Barat the fourteenth or fifteenth day of Shabanwhen Allah records an individual's future for the rest of the year; Ramadan the month Ramzana month-long period of fasting between dawn and dusk; Eid-ul-Fitr the first day of the month Shawal, following the end of Ramzancharacterized by alms giving to the poor; and Shob-i-Meraz the twenty-seventh day of Rajabwhich commemorates the night when Mohammed ascended to heaven.
Islamic holidays are publicly celebrated in afternoon prayers at mosques and outdoor open areas, where many men assemble and move through their prayers in unison. Among the most important Hindu celebrations are Saraswati Puja Februarydedicated to the deity Saraswati, who takes the form of a swan. She is the patron of learning, and propitiating her is important for students.
Durga Puja October pays homage to the female warrior goddess Durga, who has ten arms, carries a sword, and rides a lion. After a nine-day festival, images of Durga and her associates are placed in a procession and set into a river. Kali Puja November is also called the Festival of Lights and honors Kali, a female deity who has the power to give and take away life.
Candles are lit in and around homes. A young Bengali woman performs a traditional Manipuri dance. Almost all traditional dancers are women. Other Hindu and Islamic rituals are celebrated in villages and neighborhoods and are dependent on important family or local traditions. Celebrations take place at many local shrines and temples.
Death and the Afterlife.
Culture of Bangladesh - Wikipedia
Muslims believe that after death the soul is judged and moves to heaven or hell. Funerals require that the body be washed, the nostrils and ears be plugged with cotton or cloth, and the body be wrapped in a white shroud. The body is buried or entombed in a brick or concrete structure. In Hinduism, reincarnation is expected and one's actions throughout life determine one's future lives. As the family mourns and close relatives shave their heads, the body is transported to the funeral ghat bank along a riverwhere prayers are recited.
The body is to be placed on a pyre and cremated, and the ashes are thrown into the river. Medicine and Health Care The pluralistic health care system includes healers such as physicians, nonprofessionally trained doctors, Aryuvedic practitioners, homeopaths, fakirs, and naturopaths.
In rural areas, for non-life-threatening acute conditions, the type of healer consulted depends largely on local reputation. In many places, the patient consults a homeopath or a nonprofessional doctor who is familiar with local remedies as well as modern medical practices.
Professional physicians are consulted by the educated and by those who have not received relief from other sources. Commonly, people pursue alternative treatments simultaneously, visiting a fakir for an amulet, an imam for blessed oil, and a physician for medicine. A nationally run system of public hospitals provides free service. However, prescriptions and some medical supplies are the responsibility of patients and their families. Aryuvedic beliefs based on humoral theories are common among both Hindus and Muslims.
These beliefs are commonly expressed through the categorization of the inherent hot or cold properties of foods. An imbalance in hot or cold food intake is believed to lead to sickness. Health is restored when this imbalance is counteracted through dietary means.
Secular Celebrations Ekushee 21 Februaryalso called Shaheed Dibash, is the National Day of Martyrs commemorating those who died defending the Bangla language in Political speeches are held, and a memorial service takes place at the Shaheed Minar Martyr's Monument in Dhaka. Shadheenata Dibash, or Independence Day 26 Marchmarks the day when Bangladesh declared itself separate from Pakistan. The event is marked with military parades and political speeches.
Poetry readings and musical events take place. May Day 1 May celebrates labor and workers with speeches and cultural events. Bijoy Dibosh, or Victory Day 16 Decembercommemorates the day in when Pakistani forces surrendered to a joint Bangladeshi—Indian force. Cultural and political events are held. The Arts and Humanities Support for the Arts. Artists are largely self-supporting. Is a man i dont need your pictures by dragging their photos and Caicos Islands U.
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